Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
In Cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, __1 __ those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. A young man can __2__a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to __3 __ the marriage negotiations, or the young man’s parents may make the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection.__4__ , a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. __5 __ a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying __6__ a good family.
The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, __7__ by the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and __8__ prayers of blessing. Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, __9__cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride’s and groom’s wrists, and __10__ a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the __11__ . Newlyseds traditionally move in with the wife’s parents and may __12__ with them up to a year, __13__they can build a new house nearby.
Divorce is legal and easy to __14__ ,but not common. Divoreced persons are __15__with some disapproval. Each spouse retains __16__ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__ up: The divorced male doesn’t have a waiting period before he can remarry __20__ the woman must wait ten months.
1. [A] by way of [B] on behalf of [C] as well as [D] with regard to
[标准答案] [C] as well as
[选项分析] 因为考查逻辑关系，所以需要我们先对填空前后的原文信息做定位分析：空格处身处大环境not only…but also之?#26657;?#36825;是一个明显的并列关系，表示“不仅……而且……”，该空后面的those?#22797;?#21069;文出现的“parents and friends”，显然“the young man”与“the young woman”为并列关系，表示“与他本人以及伴侣的父母朋友相关”，所以答案只能是[C]项as well as 也，又。[A]项by way of 通过，[D]项with regard to 关于，[B]项on behalf of 代表。
2. [A] adapt to [B] provide for [C] compete with [D] decide on
[标准答案] [D] decide on
[选项分析] 根据该句的主语a young man与宾语a likely spouse的关系，答案只能是[D]项decide on“决定”，表示自己决定自己的配偶。[B]项provide for为……提供准备……，provide为及物动词，直接跟宾语，不需要加介词；[C]项compete with“与……竞争”，[A]项adapt to“适用”。
3. [A] close [B] remew [C] arrange [D] postpone
[标准答案] [C] arrange
[选项分析] 该句意思为：他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母_____婚姻谈判。四个选项?#26657;琜A]项close 关闭；[B]项renew 更新，恢复；[D]项postpone 推迟；这三项语义不正确，只有[C]项arrange“安排”符合语?#22330;?br />
4. [A] Above all [B] In theory [C] In time [D] For example
[标准答案] [B] In theory
[选项分析] 逻辑判断题主要是看前后两句的含义，前面说“他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母安排婚姻谈?#26657;?#25110;者完全由父母选择对象，不给孩子选择的机会。”空格后面说“女方可以否决她父母所选择的对象。”这两句之间显然是相反的关系，且有一个may，更证明[B]项In theory“理论上说”的正确性，而其他选项[A]项Above all最重要的是，[C]项In time 准时，[D]项For example举例，均?#29615;?#21512;题意。
5. [A] Although [B] Lest [C] After [D] Unless
[标准答案] [C] After
[选项分析] 根据下文“______a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other…”可知，只有对象选择好后，父母才会去调查对方，显然表达的是时间先后顺序，所以只有after才对。其他选项[A]项Although 尽管， [B]项Lest 以免，唯恐，[D]Unless 除非，否则都?#29615;?#21512;题意。
6. [A] into [B] within [C] from [D] through
[标准答案] [A] into
[选项分析] 这里主要是看marry与相关介词的固定搭配及句意理解。这里marry into就是指“通过婚姻得到[成为]……的一员”，而其他选项均没有这层含义。
7. [A] since [B] or [C] but [D] so
[标准答案] [C] but
[选项分析] 根据上文“以前婚礼会?#20013;?#19977;天”，出处句子意为“到了20世纪80年代，婚礼只?#20013;?#19968;天半”，显然与前文发生转变，为对比关系，因此选择[C]项but 但是。
8. [A] copy [B] test [C] recite [D] create
[标准答案] [C] recite
[选项分析] 空格处需要填一个动词，和后面的prayers of blessing所搭配，[C]项recite 有“吟诵、朗诵”的意思，与所给短语搭配最为合理，译为“吟诵祝福的祈祷文”。
9. [A] folding [B] piling [C] wrapping [D] tying
[标准答案] [D] tying
[选项分析] 本题需要根据上下文语义分析，空格处需要搭配后文“棉线”，纵观四个选项[A]项 折叠，[B]项 堆积，[C]项 包裹，[D]项 系上，根据后文的“around the bride’s and groom’s wrists 在新郎和新娘的腰间”，只有[D]项“将在圣水中浸过的棉线系在新郎和新娘的腰间”符合句意。
10. [A] passing [B] lighting [C] hiding [D] serving
[标准答案] [A] passing
[选项分析] 原?#30446;?#26684;需要填写一个动词与后文“around a circle”来搭配，译为“将蜡烛传一圈”，故[A]项“传递”为正确选项。[B]项 点亮，[C]项 隐藏，[D]项 服务。
11. [A] meeting [B] collection [C] association [D] union
[标准答案] [D] union
[选项分析] 本句语义为“将蜡烛绕?#21028;?#31119;完婚和受人尊敬的夫妻传递一圈来祝福 ”，[D]项 结合，引申为“婚姻”之意；根据语?#24120;琜D]项正确。
12. [A] grow [B] part [C] deal [D] live
[标准答案] [D] live
[选项分析] 本题比较简单。根据语义“根据传统，新婚夫妇要搬到妻子父母家，与父母____一年”，[D]项“生活”为最佳答案。[C]项 交?#31069;琜B]项 分开，[A]项 成长。
13. [A] whereas [B] until [C] if [D] for
[标准答案] [B] until
[选项分析] 本句意为“_____他们在附近建造一栋新房子”，[A]项 然而，[B]项 直到，[D]项因为，[C]项 如果，结合前文“新婚夫妇根据传统要和女方家人生活一年”，前后存在一定的时间关系，[B]项“直到”最符合原文语?#24120;?#25645;配最为合理。
14. [A] avoid [B] follow [C] challenge [D] obtain
[标准答案] [D] obtain
[选项分析] Divorce is legal and relatively easy to __14__, but not common. 该句句意为“离婚是合法的，且相对容易____。”[A]项avoid避免，[B]项follow跟随，[C]项challenge挑战，质疑，[D]项obtain获得，实现。根据关键词“legal”可知这里表达的是正面的意思，再根据句意选择[D]项。
15. [A] isolated [B] persuaded [C] viewed [D] exposed
[标准答案] [C] viewed
[选项分析] Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval. 离婚的人 一些不认可。本段第一句提到“离婚是合法的且相对容易得到批准，但是不常见。”这句其实是在说明离婚并不常见的原因，[A]项isolated孤立，[B]项persuaded劝说，[C]项viewed看待，[D]项exposed接触，受到……的影响，[C]项最符合句意。
16. [A] whereever [B] whatever [C] whenever [D] however
[标准答案] [B] whatever
[选项分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage. 17小题四个选项都是动词，所以该句意思为：夫妇双方保有财产，这个财产是他或她进婚姻的。结合[A]项 whereever“无论何地；任何（地方）=any place where(定从)”；[B]项 whatever“无论什么；任何（东西）=anything that/any+N that”；[C]项 whenever无论?#38382;保?#20219;?#38382;?#38388;=any time when；[D]项 however无论如何；无论多么。根据语义，这里应该不是让步的关系，而且填的这个词还要能修饰property。因此，选择[B]项，等于retains any property that he or she……。
17. [A] changed [B] brought [C] shaped [D] pushed
[标准答案] [B] brought
[选项分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage，结合[A]项 changed“改变”，[B]项 brought “带来”，[C]项 shaped“形成”，[D]项 pushed“推，逼迫”。结合语境只有[B]项符合句意，意为“把财产带入婚姻”。
18. [A] invested [B] divided [C] donated [D] withdrawn
[标准答案] [B] divided
[选项分析] ...and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. 结合[A]项invested投资；[B]项divided分配；分开；[C]项donated 捐赠；[D]项withdrawn撤出，提取。根据语义应该是共同财产被（夫妻双方）平分，因此选择[B]项。
19. [A] warms [B] clears [C] shows [D] breaks
[标准答案] [C] shows
[选项分析] Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up. 该句语义为离过婚的人或许会再婚，但是性别偏见 。[A]项warm up加热，热身；[B]项clear up（天气）变晴，收拾，消除；[C]项show up显现；[D]项break up分裂，分开；根据句意，选择[C]项。
20. [A] while [B] so that [C] once [D] in that
[标准答案] [A] while
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways.
The parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.
Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death - as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.
The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.
The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep — and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.
The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.
In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states: “We are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people.’ The charter’s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen Fashion Week, which is run by the Danish Fashion Institute. But in general it relies on a name-and-shame method of compliance.
Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.
21. According to the first paragraph, what would happen in France?
[A] Physical beauty would be redefined.
[B] New runways would be constructed.
[C] Websites about dieting would thrive.
[D] The fashion industry would decline.
【答案】 [A] Physical beauty would be redefined
【解析】 推断题。根据France定位到文章前两段，第一段讲法国决定时装业失去?#30805;?#20041;（define）形体美（physical beauty）的绝对权力。法国的立法者通过了一项法律，雇用超瘦的模特属于犯罪，议会也禁止网站通过推崇极端节食“鼓动过度瘦弱”。第二段第二句提到“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. 他们建议美丽不应该以伤害身体健康为代价的外表来界定。”由此可知，法国通过立法手段来改变法国时装业模特超瘦?#21335;?#29366;，即[A]项的“形体美将会?#24674;?#26032;定义”，是对原文内容的合理推断。[B]项“将会建造新的舞台”，[C]项“有关节食的网站将会兴起”，[D]项“时装业将会衰退”，均不能从文中推测出来，属于“无中生有”。
22. The phrase “impinging on” (Line 2, Para 2) is closest in meaning to____
[A] heightening the value of.
[B] indicating the state of.
[C] losing faith in.
[D] doing harm to.
【答案】 [D] doing harm to
【解析】猜词题。定位到第二段第二句“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. 他们建议美丽不应该以 身体健康为代价的外表来界定。”impinging on后面的宾语为“health”，即对健康的?#25345;?#24433;响。根据第二段第三句“对超瘦模特的禁令似乎不仅仅是在防止模特挨饿致死——正如曾有人这么做过的”，可见法国目前的对美丽的定义导致了有人为了保持身?#27169;?#25384;饿致死，因此推测出这一短语在这里的意思为“侵?#31119;?#20260;害”，[D]项“对……有害”正确。[A]项“增强了……的价值”，[B]项“反映了……的状态”，[C]项“对……失去信心”均?#29615;?#21512;句意。
23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry?
[A] The French measures have already failed.
[B] New standards are being set in Denmark.
[C] Model are no longer under peer pressure.
[D] Its inherent problems are getting worse.
【答案】 [B] New Standards are being set in Denmark
【解析】?#38468;?#39064;。根据第五段第二句话“In Denmark,...it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion... 在丹麦，它正尝试为模特设定自愿的标准……”，可知[B]项“在丹麦新的标准正在被设定”是对原文的同义替换。[A]项“法国的措施失败了”；[C]项“不再有来自同行执法的压力”，文章第五段第二句后半句提到“images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement”，属于“正反混淆”；[D]项“它固有的问题变得更?#29616;?#20102;”，文中第五段只提及时装业有固有的问题，并未提及“变得更?#29616;?rdquo;，属于“无中生有”。
24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for ____
[A] setting a high age threshold for models.
[B] caring too much about models’ character.
[C] showing little concern for health factors.
[D] pursuing perfect physical conditions.
【答案】 [C] showing little concern for health factors
25. Which of the following may be the best title of the text?
[A] The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry
[B] Just Another Round of Struggle for Beauty
[C] A Dilemma for the Starving Models in France
[D] A Challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals
【答案】 [D] A challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals
For the first time in history, more people live in towns than in the county. In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate “the countryside” alongside the royal firmly, Shakespeare and the National Health Service (NHS) as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.
A century ago Octavia Hill launched the National Trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save “the beauty of natural places for everyone forever.” It was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience “a refreshing air.” Hill’s pressure later led to the creation of national parks and green belts. They don’t make countryside any more, and every year concrete consumes more of it. It needs constant guardianship.
At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The conservatives’ planning reform explicitly gives rural development priori over conservation, even authorizing “off-plan” building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The Liberal Democrats are silent. Only Ukip, sensing its chance, has sided with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. Its Campaign to Protect Rural England struck terror into many local Conservative parties.
The sensible place to build new houses, factories and offices is where people are.in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents Stirling Ackroyd recently identified enough sites for half a million houses in the London area alone, no intrusion on green belt. What is true of London is even truer of the provinces.
The idea that “housing crisis” equals “concreted meadows” is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more house but, as always, where to put them. Under lobby pressure, George Osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town shopping sites against. high streets. This is not a free market but a biased one. Rural towns and villages have growl and will always grow. They do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. We do not ruin urban conservation areas. Why ruin rural ones?
Development should be planned .not let rip. After the Netherlands, Britain is Europe’s most crowded country. Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. there is no doubt of the alternative - the corrupted landscapes of southern Portugal Spain or Ireland avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite left and right of the political spectrum.
26. Britain’s public sentiment about the countryside
[A] didn’t start till the Shakespearean age.
[B] has brought much benefit to the NHS.
[C] is fully backed by the royal family.
[D] is not well reflected in politics.
【答案】 [D] is not well reflected in politics
【解析】?#38468;?#39064;。根据题干回到原文精确定位到首段最后一句：“然而民意调查显示英国人把乡村与?#36866;?#23478;族、莎士比亚和国家医疗服务体系一起视为使他们为自己国家感到最?#38498;?#30340;事物，这拥有有限的政治支持”，该句中的polls“民意调查“对应题干中的public sentiment，“this has limited political support”对应[D]项“is not well reflected in politics”，意为“在政治上没有得到很好的反响”，是对原文的同义替换。[B]项“给国家医疗服务体系带了了很多益处”，[A]项“直到莎士比亚时期才开始”，[C]项“得到了?#36866;?#23478;族的全力支持”，文章均未提及，属于“无中生有”。
27. According to Paragraph 2, the achievements of the National Trust are now being
[A] gradually destroyed.
[B] effectively reinforced..
[C] properly protected.
[D] largely overshadowed.
【答案】 [D] largely overshadowed
【解析】?#38468;?#39064;。根据题干中的the National Trust定位到第二段首句。第二段首句提到这一项目的目的是为每个人永久保存自然地区的美丽。再根据第二段的第三句“Hill?#21335;?#30446;创造出国家公园和绿地。他们不再制造乡村了，而且每年钢筋混凝?#26009;?#32791;?#21335;?#26449;越来越多。乡村需要持久的保护”。可知当时?#21335;?#30446;取得的成就已经不再发挥影响，[D]项“被大大夺去了光辉（?#35789;?#21435;了影响力）”为正确选项。[A]项“被渐渐破坏”，[B]项“被有效地加强了”，[C]项“被合理地保护”，均?#29615;?#21512;题意。
28. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3?
[A] Labour is under attack for opposing development
[B] The Conservatives may abandon “off-plan” building.
[C] The Liberal Democrats are losing political influence.
[D] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation.
【答案】 [D] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation
29. The author holds that George Osborne’s preference
[A] reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas.
[B] shows his disregard for the character of rural areas.
[C] stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis.
[D] highlights his firm stand i against lobby Pressure.
【答案】[B] shows his disregard for the character of rural areas
【解析】 ?#38468;?#39064;。根据关键词George Osborne定位至第五段，第五段第二句提到Osborne支持乡村新建住宅反对城市改造和重建，支持郊区购物场所反对城市商业街。由此可知Osborne的是支持城市保护，反对乡村保护。接下来几句作者表达了自己的观点：这不是一个自由的市场而是一个有偏见的市场。接着提到?#21512;?#26449;的小镇和农村已经得到发?#20849;?#23558;继续发展，它们在建筑坚持界线和尊重它们的特点方面做的非常好，我们没有破坏城市受保护的区域，为什么要破坏乡村的呢？可见Osborne的观点只强调城?#26657;?#24573;视了乡村，[B]项“表明他对乡村区域特色的忽视”符合文意，为正确选项。[A]项“揭?#22659;?#23545;城市区域的强烈偏见”，Osborne重?#26144;?#24066;反对乡村，与文意相悖；[C]项“强调了缓解住房压力的必要性”，[D]项“突出了他反对游说团压力的坚定立场”，文中并未提及，属于“无中生有”。
30. In the last paragraph, the author shows his appreciation of
[A] the size of population in Britain.
[B] the enviable urban lifestyle in Britain.
[C] the town-and-country planning in Britain.
[D]the political life in today’s Britain.
【答案】 [C] the town-and-country planning in Britain
【解析】 ?#38468;?#39064;。根据题干定位到最后一段第二句：“Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living.”，[C]项的“the town-and-country planning in Britain”是对原文的同义替换，为正确选项。[A]项“英国人口的规模”，[B]项“英国令人羡慕的都市生活方式”，[D]项“当今英国的政治生活”，均?#29615;?#21512;题意。
“There is one and only one social responsibility of businesses,” wrote Milton Friedman, a Nobel prize-winning economist, “That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.” But even if you accept Firedman’s premise and regard corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders’ money, things may not be absolutely clear-cut. New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies-at least when they are prosecuted for corruption.
The largest firms in America and Britain together spend more than $ 15 billion a year on CSR, according to an estimate by EPG, a consulting firm. This could add value to their businesses in three ways. First, consumers may take CSR spending as a “signal” that a company’s products are of high quality. Second, customers may be willing to buy a company’s products as an indirect way to donate to the good causes it helps. And third, through a more diffuse “halo effect,” whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others.
Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. A recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under America’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company’s products as part of their investigations, they could be influenced only by the halo effect.
The study found that, among prosecuted firms, those with the most comprehensive CSR programmes tended to get more lenient penalties. Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firms’ political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.
In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seem to be influenced by a company’s record in CSR. “We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern, such as child labour or increasing corpora giving by about 20% results in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for briding foreign officials,” says one researcher.
Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question of how much businesses ought to spend on CSR. Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect rather than the other possible benefits, when they decide their do-gooding policies. But at least they have demonstrated that when companies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them a less costly punishment.
31. The author views Milton Friedman’s statement about CSR with
【解析】观点态度题。题干问的是作者对有关CSR方面Milton Friedman的说法是什么态?#21462;?#26681;据信号词Milton Friedman这个?#30805;?#20301;到首段。注意题干问的是作者?#30446;?#27861;，因?#30805;?#20301;到第二句but转折处。But后句子的主干为：things may not be absolutely clear-cut，可见作者对Milton Friedman所说的内容并不完全赞同，故选择答案[B]项怀疑。[A]项容忍，[C]项不确定，[D]项赞同，这三项均不是作者的态度，故排除。
32. According to Paragraph 2, CSR helps a company by
[A] winning trust from consumers.
[B] guarding it against malpractices.
[C] protecting it from being defamed.
[D] raising the quality of its products.
【解析】?#38468;?#39064;。根据题干中的出处提示“Paragraph 2”定位到第二段第二句：This could add value to their businesses in three ways. This指的是CSR，根据接下来讲到的三点：第一点是，消费者认为这样的公司产?#20998;?#37327;比较高；第二点是，顾客更愿意购买这样公司的产?#32602;?#31532;三点是，通过一个更为广泛的“晕?#20013;?#24212;”，消费者会更多地考虑这样的公司的产品。可知，有CSR支出的公司会吸引更多?#21335;?#36153;者，[A]项“赢得消费者的信任”，是对整个三点的总结，故为正确答案。[B]项 防止公司里的玩忽职守，[C]项 保护公司免受毁谤，[D]项 提升公司产品的质量，均在原文中未提及，故排除。
33. The expression “more lenient’ (Line 2, Para. 4) is closest in meaning to
[A] more effective
[B] less controversial
[C] less severe
[D] more lasting
【解析】猜词题。根据题干中的出处提示“line 2, para. 4”及信号词“more lenient”定位到原文中的第四段第一句：The study found that...penalties。明?#28304;?#21477;中more lenient 修饰 penalties(惩罚) ，要想推测出more lenient的含义，需要知道被起诉的公司?#26657;?#37027;些有着全面的CSR项目的公?#31454;蚿enalties 之间的联系。本项在第五段的最后一句最容易被看出来，第五段最后一句提到那些在CSR有较大投资的公司，当被起诉有贿赂行为时，所受到的罚金要比通常的罚金低40%左右，可知这样的公司会受到较轻的惩罚，故more lenient是较轻，即较不?#29616;?#30340;意思，故选[C]项。[A]项 更有效的，[B]项 较少有争议的，[D]项 更持久的，这三项均不是more lenient的意思，故排除。
34. When prosecutors evaluate a case, a company’s CSR record
[A] has an impact on their decision.
[B] comes across as reliable evidence.
[C] increases the chance of being penalized.
[D] constitutes part of the investigation.
【解析】?#38468;?#39064;。题干问的是 CSR record 与 prosecutors evaluate a case 的关系，根据题干中的信号词prosecutors evaluate a case可回文中定位到第五段第一句：In all...in CSR。这里的be influenced与[A]项 has an impact 对应，即一个公司的CSR会影响检察官对其案件的评估，故选[A]项。[B]项被检察官认为是可靠的证据，[C]项 增加了被惩罚的机会，[D]项 构成了调查的一部分，这三项均在原文中没有提及，故排除。
35. Which of the following is true of CSR, according to the last paragraph?
[A] Its negative effects on businesses are often overlooked.
[B] The necessary amount of companies’ spending on it is unknown.
[C] Companies’ financial capacity for it has been overestimated.
[D] It has brought much benefit to the banking industry.
【解析】判断题题干问的是根据最后一段，有关CSR的论述哪个是对的。定位到原文最后一段，根据其内容可知“研究人员承认到其研究没有回答如下问题：公司应该在CSR方面花?#35759;?#23569;钱”。[B]项的意思是“公司在CSR方面的花费是未知的”，属于原文的同义替换，?#25910;?#30830;。[A]项 CSR对公司的负面影响经常被忽视，[C]项 公司对CSR的经济承担力被过高估计了，[D]项 CSR给银行业带来了很多好处，这三项在文中均为提及，故排除。
There will eventually come a day when The New York Times ceases to publish stories on newsprint. Exactly when that day will be is a matter of debate. “Sometime in the future,” the paper’s publisher said back in 2010.
Nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside, there’s plenty of incentive to ditch print. The infrastructure required to make a physical newspaper-printing presses, delivery trucks — isn’t just expensive; it’s excessive at a time when online-only competitors don’t have the same set of financial constraints. Readers are migrating away from print anyway. And though print and sales still dwarf their online and mobile counterparts, revenue from print is still declining.
Overhead may be high and circulation lower, but risking to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake, says BuzzFeed CEO Jonah Pere.
Peretti says the Times shouldn’t waste time getting out of the print business, but only if they go about do, it the right way. “Figuring out a way to accelerate that transition would make sense for them,” he said, “but if you discontinue it, you’re going to have your most loyal customers really upset with you.”
Sometimes that’s worth making a change anyway. Peretti gives the example of Netflix discontinuing its DVD-mailing service to focus on streaming. “It was seen as a blunder,” he said. The move turned out to be foresighted. And if Peretti were in charge at the Times? “I wouldn’t pick a year to end print,” he said. “I would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product.”
The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor, the idea goes, and they’d feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in. “So if you are overpaying for print, you could feel like you were helping,” Peretti said, “Then increase it at a higher rate each year and essentially try to generate additional revenue.” In other words, if you’re going to make a print product, make it for the people who are already obsessed with it, Which may be what the Times is doing already. Getting the print edition seven days a week costs nearly $500 a year — more than twice as much as a digital-only subscription.
“It’s a really hard thing to do and it’s a tremendous luxury that BuzzFeed doesn’t have a legacy business,” Peretti remarked. “But we’re going to have questions like that where we have things we’re doing that don’t make sense when the market changes and the world changes. In those situations, it’s better to be more aggressive than less aggressive.”
36. The New York Times is considering ending it’s print edition partly due to
[A] the pressure form its investors
[B] the complaints from its readers
[C] the high cost of operation
[D] the increasing online ad sales.
【解析】?#38468;?#39064;。题干问的是《纽约时报》考虑停止纸质版新闻印刷出版的原因是什么。文章首段首句即是?#22235;?#23481;的同义表达，第二段解?#36884;?#20307;原因，第二句：The infrastructure...isn’t just expensive; it’s excessive at a time when online-only competitors don’t have the same set of financial constraints. 意思是纸质印刷所要求的基础设施不仅仅贵而且多余，因为他们的网络竞争对手没有这样的经济上?#21335;?#21046;。[C]项“?#35829;?#30340;高成本”是对原文内容的总结，?#25910;?#30830;。[A]项 来自于投?#25910;?#30340;压力，[B]项 来自于读者的投诉，[D]项 网络广告销售的增长，这三项在文中均未提及，故排除。
37.Peretti suggests that.in face of the present situation, the Times should
[A] make strategic adjustments
[B] end the print edition for good
[C] seek new sources of readership
[D] aim for efficient management
【解析】?#38468;?#39064;。题干问的是：面对目前的?#38382;疲琍eretti建议《纽约时报》怎么做。根据信号词Peretti回原文中定位至第四段，首句内容是Peretti说《纽约时报》不该浪费时间去想着如何停止纸质印刷，而应该?#19994;?#19968;种正确的方法去解决这件事。接着第二句Peretti说?#19994;?#19968;种方式来促进这种转变会对他们来说有用处。可知Peretti认为《纽约时报》应当做出一些改变而非停止纸质版的发?#26657;琜A]项“做出策略上的调整”是对原文的同义转述，?#25910;?#30830;。[B]项 永远结束纸质版，与原文意思相反，故排除；[C]项 寻求新的读者?#35797;矗琜D]项 以高效的管理为目标，在原文中未提及，故排除。
38.It can be inferred front Paragraphs 5 and 6 that a “legacy product”
[A] will have the cost of printing reduced.
[B] is meant for the most loyal customers.
[C] helps restore the glory of former times.
[D] expands the popularity of the paper.
【解析】题干意思为：从第五、六段可以推断出“传承产品” 。根据信号词legacy product定位到第五段最后一句：I would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product.不仅要提高价格还要将它变为一种遗留品。单单这一句不足以做出选择，需要继续往下看在第六段中有没有对于这个词的解释。第六段开头提到了他认为大部分忠实?#21335;?#36153;者依旧会坚持购买他们?#19981;?#30340;产?#32602;?#32780;且他们会认为是在帮助维持他们所信任的产品的质量。可见Peretti认为忠实的购买者不会有改变，如果可以每年增加一些比例，那么依旧是可?#28304;?#25910;的。紧接着出现了in other worlds(换句话说)，如果我们要做这些print product(印刷产品)，那就为那些已经痴迷于他们的?#30805;?#20570;吧。[B]项“是为多数忠实的顾客设计的”，是对原文内容的同义替换，为正确答案。[A]项 会降低印刷成本，[C]项 重建以往的荣耀，[D]项 扩大报纸的受欢迎程度，这三项均在文中未提及，故排除。
39. Peretti believes that in a changing world,
[A] traditional luxuries can stay unaffected.
[B] aggressiveness better meets challenges.
[C] cautiousness facilitates problem-solving.
[D] legacy businesses are becoming outdated.
【解析】题干以为：Peretti认为，在一个变化的世界里 。根据信号词Peretti和changing world可回文中定位到文章最后一段，由最后一段可知Peretti认为在市场在变化、世界在变化的情况?#26657;?#26356;有进取心是更好的。[B]项“进取精神可以更好地迎接挑战”，本项是对原文的同义转述，?#25910;?#30830;。[A]项 传统的奢侈品不会受到影响，在文中未提及，故排除；[C]项 谨慎小心促进问题的解决，与原文意思相反，故排除；[D]项 传统产业正在变得过时，在文中未提及，故排除。
40 . Which of the following would be the best title of the text
[A] Make Your Print Newspaper a Luxury Good
[B] Keep Your Newspaper Forever in Fashion
[C] Cherish the Newspaper Still in Your Hand
[D] Shift to Online Newspapers All at Once
【解析】全文由《纽约时报?#20998;?#36136;版终有一天会面临倒闭的危机引出话题，重点阐述Peretti?#28304;?#38382;题?#30446;?#27861;：《纽约时报?#20998;?#36136;版应该考虑转型——为大部分忠实的顾客提供遗留品。后面接着阐述了如何将《纽约时报》做成这种专为忠实的顾客制作的高价遗留品。[A]项“将你的印刷报纸做成一个奢侈品”，a luxury good是对原文中提到的高价“legacy product”的同义转述，?#25910;?#30830;。B.始终保持你的报纸时尚前沿，[C]项 珍惜你手中仍然拥有的报纸，[D]项 立刻转向网络在线报纸，均不是本文要的主旨，故排除。
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs(41-45). There are two extra subheadings. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.
[A] Create a new image of yourself
[B] Decide if the time is right
[C] Have confidence in yourself
[D] Understand the context
[E] Work with professionals
[F] Know your goals
[G] Make it efficient
No matter how formal or informal the work environment, the way you present yourself has an impact. This is especially true in fast impressions. According to research from Princeton University, people assess your competence, trustworthiness, and likeability in just a tenth of a second, solely based on the way you look.
The difference between today’s workplace and the “dress for success” era is that the range of options is so much broader. Norms have evolved and fragmented. In some settings, red sneakers or dress T-shirts can convey status; in others not so much. Plus, whatever image we present is magnified by social-media services like LinkedIn. Chances are, your headshots are seen much more often now than a decade or two ago. Millennials, it seems , face the paradox of being the least formal generation yet the most conscious of style and personal branding. It can be confusing.
So how do we navigate this? How do we know when to invest in an upgrade? And what’s the best way to pull off one that enhances our goals? Here are some tips:
As an executive coach, I’ve seen image upgrades be particularly helpful during transitions-when looking for a new job, stepping into a new or more public role, or changing work environments. If you’re in a period of change or just feeling stuck and in a rut, now may be a good time. If you’re not sure, ask for honest feedback from trusted friends, colleagues and professionals. Look for cues about how others perceive you. Maybe there’s no need for an upgrade and that’s OK.
Get clear on what impact you’re hoping to have. Are you looking to refresh your image or pivot it? For one person, the goal may be to be taken more seriously and enhance their professional image. For another, it may be to be perceived as more approachable, or more modern and stylish. For someone moving from finance to advertising, maybe they want to look more “SoHo.”(It’s OK to use characterizations like that.)
Look at your work environment like an anthropologist. What are the norms of your environment? What conveys status? Who are your most important audiences? How do the people you respect and look up to present themselves? The better you understand te cultural context, the more control you can have over your impact.
Enlist the support of professionals and share with them your goals and context. Hire a personal stylist, or use the free styling service of a store like. Crew. Try a hair stylist instead of a barber. Work with a professional photographer instead of your spouse or friend. It’s not as expensive as you might think.
The point of a style upgrade isn’t to become more vain or to spend more time excessing over what to wear. Instead, use it as an opportunity to reduce decision fatigue. Pick a standard work uniform or a few go-to options. Buy all your clothes …. once with a stylist instead of shopping alone, one article of clothing at a time.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese .You translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEKT. (10 points)
Mental health is our birthright. (46) We don’t have to learn how to be mentally healthy ;it it built into us that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone. Mental health can’t be learned, only reawakened. It is like the immune system of the body, which under stress or through lack of nutrition or exercise can be weakened, but which never leaves us. When we don't understand the value of mental health and we don't know how to gain access to it, mental health will remain hidden from us. (47) Our mental health doesn’t really go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.
Mental health is the seed that contains self-esteem - confidence in ourselves and an ability to trust in our common sense. It allows us to have perspective on our lives - the ability to not take ourselves too seriously, to laugh at ourselves, to see the bigger picture, and to see that things will work out. It’s a form of innate or unlearned optimism. (48) Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles ,with kindness if they are in pain,and with unconditional love no matter who they are. Mental health is the source of creativity for soving problems, resolving conflict, making our surroundings more beautiful,managing our home life, or coming up with a creative business idea or invention to make our lives easier. It gives us patience for ourselves and toward others as well as patience while driving,catching a fish,working on our car,or raising a child. It allows us to see the beauty that surrounds us each moment in nature,in culture,in the flow of our daily lives.
(49) Although mental health is the cure-all for living our lives,it is perfectly ordinary as you will see that it has been there to direct you through all your difficult decisions.It has been available even in the most mundane of life situations to show you right from wrong,good from bad,friend from foe.Mental health has commonly been called conscience,instinct,wisdom,common sense,or the inner voice.We think of it simply as a healthy and helpful flow of intelligent thought .(50) As you will come to see ,knowing that mental heath is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.
46. We don’t have to learn how to be mentally healthy; it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone.
【句子结构?#30475;?#21477;中分号连接了两个并列句。第一个句子中how to be mentally healthy作learn的宾语。第二个句?#21448;?#24178;是it is built into us，in the same way引导状语从句说明built into us的方式，that引导定语从句修饰way，其中定语从句中how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone作know的宾语。
47. Our mental health doesn’t really go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.
【句子结构?#30475;?#21477;中分号连接了两个并列句。第一个句子是简单句，第二个句?#21448;校琹ike the sun behind a cloud是状语，but连接两个转折关系的并列分句，在翻译时要注意be hidden from和be capable of的被动语态的翻译方法。
48. Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles, with kindness if they are in pain, and with unconditional love no matter who they are.
【句子结构】该句主干是Mental health allows us to view others，三个并列with引导的介?#35782;?#35821;做状语，前两个with引导的状语中各包含一个if引导的条件状语从句，最后一个with状语中包含一个no matter引导的让步状语从句。
49. Although mental health is the cure-all for living our lives, it is perfectly ordinary as you will see that it has been there to direct you through all your difficult decisions.
【句子结构】本题有一个由although引导的让步状语从句，as引导的原因状语从句，以及that引导的宾语从句构成。此处“mental health”若是翻译成心理健康与下文连接，则?#29615;现?#25991;表达习惯，又因mental本身与智力相关，所以将其翻译成“健康的心智”；此外“perfectly ordinary”可以正译，译为“非常普遍”，本译文采取正话反说的方式，译为“并不稀奇”。“difficult decisions”若翻译为“困?#35757;?#20915;定”，?#29615;现?#25991;的表达方式，所以将decision，名词译为动词“做决定”。
50. As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.
Section III Writing
Suppose you are a librarian in your university. Write a notice of about 100 words, providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.
You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET.
Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead.
Do not write the address .(10 points)
August 20, 2015
To ensure students from overseas to be acquainted with the service of library in Beijing University, we write this notice to inform you of some relevant information about our library.
To begin with, our library provides a large amount of books and materials covering not only most majors and subjects, but also many extra-curricular reading materials, thus satisfying all your reading requirements. Furthermore, the library opens during the week time, each day from 9:00am to10:00pm. Last but not least, only students enrolled in this university and with a special Library Card are allowed to enter our library.
Anyone interested in studying or reading in our library should sign up before August 31, and the Library Card will be issued within a week.
Library of Beijing University
Suppose you are a librarian in your university. Write a notice of about 100 words, providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.
小作文，即A节作文的评分侧重点在于：1. 格式和语域的恰当性；2. 信息点的覆盖面；3. 内容的组织；4. 语言的准确性。
1、标题，通知要求必须有标题，可以直接用Notice做标题，注意首字?#22797;?#20889;，且标题要?#21448;校?br /> 2、时间，通知的时间要求在标题下方第二?#26657;?#25353;照日月年的顺序来写，注意月与年之间要有逗号，且时间要靠右对齐；
Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following picture.in your essay, you should
1. describe the pictures briefly,
2. interpret its intended meaning, and
3. give your comments.
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET . (20 points)
What is symbolically depicted in the caricatures carries sharp contrast implications. In the first drawing, a father is watching a football match on the sofa. Meanwhile, he is supervising his son to finish homework. It is obvious that his son wears frowned expression on his face. On the contrary, the second portrayal depicts a father is working earnestly besides his son, and his son is doing his own assignment without prodding.
The drawer demonstrates that utmost significance should be attached to the phenomenon that setting proper examples has exerted great impact on the growth of the younger generation in China. Previously, it is widely acknowledged that parents are under obligation to help their kids form a set of appropriate values about the world and the life, which carries overwhelmingly precious connotation to the sound development on the younger generation. Simultaneously, there is no denying that the most rational method for adults to educate adolescents is to set them good examples rather than making perpetual requirements, which is less persuasive compared with the actions.
Accordingly, it is vital for us to derive positive implication from the drawings. On the one hand, we can frequently use them to enlighten parents to be more advisable in educating their children. On the other hand, parents should attach more emphasis on setting excellent models for their juveniles. Only in this way, can we effectively ensure a promising prospect for adolescents.
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